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VaNelson Mandela Vanoshaya muJohannesburg neChina Manheru


Vaimbova mutungamiri wenyika yeSouth Africa, VaNelson Mandela, vashaya neChina manheru muJohannesburg South Africa.

Mutungamiri wenyika yeSouth Africa, VaJacob Zuma, vanoti VaMandela vashaya vaine mhuri yavo parutivi.

VaZuma vati nyika yavo yarasikirwa negamba guru uye vachapihwa chiremera chegamba renyika. VaMandela vange vari kurapwa vari kumba kubva muna Gunyana mushure mekunge vamborawara kwenguva yakareba vari muchipatara. Vange vachirwara nechirwere chemapapu.

Mutungamiri weAmerica, VaBarack Obama, vatumira mashoko ekunyaradza vanhu vemuSouth Africa zvichitevera kushaya kwaVaMandela. VaObama vati ivo nenyika yavo vanowana simba nekuyemura zvakaitwa nevanhu vemuSouth Africa mukukanganwirana.

VaMandela, gamba munyaya yekurwisa chirongwa chekupatsanura marudzi, kana kuti Apartheid, vakaberekwa kuQunu pedyo neUmtatata kuTranskei musi wa 18 Chikuguru, 1918.

Baba vaVaMandela, VaHenry Mgadla Mandela, vaive jinda ramambo uye pavakashaya, VaRolinhlanhla Mandela vakatanga kugadzirirwa kuti vatore chigaro ichi.

Asi havana kuda kumirira izvi sezvo vakatanga kuenderera mberi nedzidzo yavo. Zita rekuti Nelson vakaripihwa kuchikoro nemumwe murairidzi aitadza kutaura zita ravo rekuberekwa.

VaMandela vaizivikanwawo nezita rekuti Madiba, zita rekuremekedza rinopihwa vanhu vemutupo wavo. Hupenyu hwaVaMandela hwakave hwekurwisana nemutemo waidzvinyirira vatema weApartheid.

Mutemo uyu wakadzikwa kubva muna 1948 kusvika muna 1994 nebato reNational Party. Vatema vairambidzwa kugara mune dzimwe nzvimbo uye kushanda mamwe mabasa.

Muna 1950 pasi pemutemo wekunyoresa zvizvarwa zvenyika yeSouth Africa, kana kuti Population Registration Act, zvizvarwa zveSouth Africa zvakatanga kuiswa muzvikwata zvemarudzi.

Mutemo uyu waipatsanura vachena nevatema uchimanikidza vatema kuti vafambe nemagwaro ekufambisa.

VaMandela kubva vari mudiki vakabva variita jana ravo rekurwisa mutemo wehudzvinyiriri uyu. Vakatanga kuita zvidzidzo zvepamusoro soro paFort Hare University uye vaive musangano revadzidzi.

Apa ndipo pakatanga kushanda VaMandela naVaOliver Tambo vachikurudzira vadzidzi kuti varatidzire kusafarira kwavo hutongi wehudzvinyiriri.

Izvi zvakapa kuti VaMandela naVaTambo vadzingwe pachikoro ichi muna 1940. VaMandela vakamanikidzwa kuzopedza zvidzidzo zvavo vari kumba.

Muna 1944 vakabatsira mukuumbwa kwebazi revechidiki reANC Youth League.

Muna 1952 vakabva vatanga chirongwa chekufamba vachikurudzira vanhu kuti varatidzire. Mumakore ekuma1950 iwayo, VaMandela naVaTambo vakavamba kambani yavo yemagweta.

Mumakore aya, vaviri ava vakatanga kurwisa nyaya yeApartheid. Mumakore aya, VaMandela vakatanga kushungurudzwa, kusungwa uye kubhanwa.

Izvi zvakapa kuti VaMandela vatadze kugarawo nemhuri yavo sezvo vakange vongogara vachihwanda nekutiza.

Nyaya yekushungurudzwa iyi yakapa kuti VaMandela nevamwe vavo vaumbe chikwata chekurwisa hudzvinyiriri chainzi Umkonto weSizwe, kana kuti pfumo renyika. Mumashoko avo mukuumbwa kwechikwata ichi, VaMandela vanoti vange vazviona kuti nyaya yekutaurirana murunyararo yainge yakundikana.

Bato reANC rakabva rabhanwa muna 1960 vana vechikoro vanopfuura makumi matanhatu nemapfumbamwe vakapfurwa vachiratidzira kusafarira dzidzo yainzi Bantu Education chiitiko chinozivikanwa nekuti Sharpville Massacre.

Chikwata cheUmkonto weSizwe chichitungamirwa naVaMandela chakatanga kuronga hurongwa hwekurwisa nzvimbo dzakakosha muSouth Africa.

Mugore ra1962 VaMandela vakabuda munyika vachinodzidzira chiuto kuAlgeria. Asi pavakadzoka vakabva vakandwa mujeri kwemakore mashanu vachinzi vainge vabuda munyika zvisiri pamutemo.

Vachiri mujeri nenyaya iyi, VaMandela vakabva vatanga kutongwawo neimwe mhosva yekuda kupidigura hurumennde nechisimba vachibva vakandwa mujeri kwehupenyu hwavo hwose kubva muna 1962. Vakabva vaendeswa kujeri reRobben Island, iro riri pedyo neCape Town.

Vari mutirongo VaMandela havana kudzokera shure panyaya yechimurenga chavainge vatanga ichi kunyangwe vaimboredzwa nehurumende.

Mumakore ekuma1970, VaMandela vakaramba kubuditswa mujeri vachinzi vatende kuti vanocherechedza dunhu reTranskei.

Kuma 1980 VaMandela vakarambazve kubuda mujeri sezvainge zvataurwa nemutungamiri wehurumende, VaPieter Willem Botha, vaizivikanwa nekuti ngwena huru nenyaya yavo yekutonga nedemo ndokunge vatenda nyaya yekushoropodza mhirizhonga.

Muna Kubvumbi 1984, VaMandela vakaendeswa kujeri rePollsmmor pedyo neCape Town. Muna zvita 1988 vakaendeswa kujeri reVictor Vester pedyo nePaarl, kuWestern Cape uko vakazosunungurwa vachibva.

VaMandela vakatora mhiko yekuva mutungamiri mutema wekutanga wenyika yeSouth Africa musi wa10 Chivabvu 1994.

Mumashoko avo kumhuri yeSouth Africa, VaMandela vakakurudzira vanhu kuti vabatane uye vakati nyaya yekupatsanura vanhu nemarudzi hayaifanira kuitwazve pasi rose.

Nyaya yavo yekukurudzira runyararo iyi ndiyo yakapa kuti vazopihwe mubayiro weNobel Peace pamwe naVaFredrick de Klerk muna 1993. VaDe Klerk ndivo vakave muchena wekugumisira kutungamira South Africa isati yawana kuzvitonga kuzere.

VaMandela vakaenda pamudyandigere muna 1999. Asi vamwe vanoti havana kusiya basa sezvo vakaramba vachishanda nemasangano akasiyanya siyana akaita seMandela Foundation nemamwe anobatsira vechidiki.

Muna 2009 mukucherechedza mabasa akanaka akaitwa naVaMandela, sangano reUnited Nations rakatara zuva rinonzi Annual International Mandela Day pabhavhudhe ravo rekucherechedza mabasa avo akanaka.

Asi VaMandela vaivewo nevamwe vaivashora vachiti havana kumira semusambangwena kuti vashandise chiremera chavo kuti vatema vemuSouth Africa vawanewo chouviri munyaya dzezvehupfumi.

Mumwe akataura mashoko aya gore rino mutungamiri weZimbabwe, VaRobert Mugabe, vakaita hurukuro nemutori wenhau Dali Tambo vachiti VaMandela vakazonyanya kuzemberana nevachena.

Asi VaMugabe naVaMandela vainge havo vasina hukama hwakasimba kubva kana munguva yehondo sezvo ANC yaidyidzana neZAPU zvakasimba.

VaMandelawo vaishorawo nyaya yaVaMugabe yekutonga nedemo. Muna 2008 vari kuLondon, VaMandela vakati VaMugabe vainge vakundikana kutonga inova nyaya yakatosvora VaMugabe vakati VaMandela havana chavaivaudza nezvekutonga.

Mupepeti mukuru webepanhau reFree State Time, VaAbel Mutsakani, vanoti VaMugabe vanenge vaitya kutorerwa chiremera muAfrica naVaMandela.

Asi mumeso evakawanda VaMandela raiva gamba munyaya dzekurwira vanhu venyika yavo nevanoshupika pasi rose.

VaMandela vasiya mudzimai, Graca Machel, nevana nevazukuru. Vanga vava nemakore makumi mapfumbamwe nemashanu.
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